In Hamidović v. Bosnia and Herzegovina, (ECHR, Dec. 5, 2017), the European Court of Human Rights held that the courts of Bosnia and Herzegovina infringed the religious freedom rights protected by Art. 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights when it held a Muslim man in contempt for refusing on religious grounds to remove a head covering while testifying in a criminal trial. As summarized in the Court’s press release on the case:In 2012 Mr Hamidović, a witness in a criminal trial, was expelled from the courtroom, convicted of contempt of court and fined for refusing to remove his skullcap. The Court found that there had been nothing to indicate that Mr Hamidović had been disrespectful during the trial. Punishing him with contempt of court on the sole ground that he had refused to remove his skullcap, a religious symbol, had not therefore been necessary in a democratic society and had breached his fundamental right to manifest his religion.The Court pointed out in particular that Mr Hamidović’s case had to be distinguished from cases concerning the wearing of religious symbols and clothing at the workplace, notably by public officials. Public officials, unlike private citizens such as Mr Hamidović, could be put under a duty of discretion, neutrality and impartiality, including a duty not to wear religious symbols and clothing while exercising official authority.Two judges filed concurring opinions and one judge dissented.