However, Equation 10.2.3 is difficult to use because the friction factor appears on both sides of the equation, and it is for this reason that manual calculations are likely to be carried out by using the Moody chart. Values from "Properties of Saturated Steam Tables" automatically considered no need to look up information. This pressure drop must be acceptable at the process plant. Allows easy calculation of flash steam loss and associated energy cost through a failed steam trap. Pressure. From point C, draw a horizontal line across the pipe diameter scale (Point D). As can be seen, this procedure is fairly complex and can be simplified by using the nomogram shown in Figure 10.2.9 (in the Appendix of this Module). Substituting these pressure factors (P1 and P2) into Equation 10.2.8 will determine the value for PDF: Following down the left-hand column of the pipeline capacity and pressure drop factors table (Table 10.2.6 - Extract shown in Table 10.2.3); the nearest two readings around the requirement of 0.032 are 0.030 and 0.040. From the knowledge gained at the beginning of this Module, and particularly the notes regarding the D’Arcy equation (Equation 10.2.1), it is acknowledged that velocity is an important factor in sizing pipes. Also, it is bad practice to size any pipe up to the limit of its capacity, and it is important to have some leeway to allow for the inevitable future changes in design. Alternatively the pipe size can be calculated arithmetically. • If the pipe is over 100 metres long and is a fairly straight run with few fittings, an allowance for fittings of 5% to 10% would be made. Extra equivalent pipe length due to fittings Do NOT change any information in this table However this top section is the most important in most cases Calculation will allow you to estimate the head loss (pressure drop) in a pipe with a nice clean internal surface. Calculates approximate pipe size Calculates steam velocity and pressures drop per 100 feet of calculated pipe size, Allows quick sizing of condensate return lines Values from "Weight-Flow Rate" and "Velocity of Steam" charts automatically considered no need to look up information. The Java plug-in for web browsers relies on the cross platform plugin architecture NAPI, which has been supported by all major web browsers for over a decade. 05.12.2017) 113. The ‘pressure loss bar/100 m’ scale reads about 0.9 bar/100 m. The pipe length in the example is 200 m, so the pressure drop is: Velocity (usually pipes less than 50 m in length). Calculates cost of steam loss on an annual basis. The running load should then be added on to the steam consumption to give the total steam load and the selected pipe checked to ensure it is still correctly sized. Java - Adding Sites to Exceptions List: |. • The point at which lines DE and BC cross will indicate the pipe size required. Air Venting Heat Losses and a Summary of Various Pipe Related Standards, Previous - Introduction to Steam Distribution. The selection of piping material and the wall thickness required for a particular installation is stipulated in standards such as EN 45510 and ASME 31.1. Blue Band, being medium grade, is commonly used for air distribution systems, although it is sometimes used for low-pressure steam systems. Pipes for steam systems are commonly manufactured from carbon steel to ASME B 16.9 A106. One pressure drop sizing method, which has stood the test of time, is the ‘pressure factor’ method. This, in turn, means that either: The cost of installing 80 mm steam pipework was found to be 44% higher than the cost of 50 mm pipework, which would have had adequate capacity. Since the steam velocity must not exceed 25 m/s, the pipe size must be at least 130 mm; the nearest commercially available size, 150 mm, would be selected. In this instance, revised length = 150 m + 10% = 165 m. From Table 10.2.2 (an extract from the complete pressure factor table, Table 10.2.5, which can be found in the Appendix at the end of this Module) ‘PDF‘ can be determined by finding the pressure factors F1 and F2, and substituting them into Equation 10.2.8. Pipe sizing for the steam: Saturated steam or wet steam, overheated stream, mass throughput of the vapor, pressure low steam and pressure high pressure. Regardless of schedule number, pipes of a particular size all have the same outside diameter (not withstanding manufacturing tolerances). Information required to calculate the required pipe size: Example 10.2.4. From point B, project a line vertically upwards until it intersects the ‘inside pipe diameter’ scale of (approximately) 146 mm (Point C). From factor 0.030, by following the row of figures to the right it will be seen that: Since the application requires 270 kg/h, the 50 mm pipe would be selected. Steam and Condensate - Steam & condensate systems- properties, capacities, pipe sizing, systems configuration and more; Pipe Sizing - Sizing steam and condensate pipes - pressure loss, recommended velocity, capacity and more; Related Documents . Looking for Spirax Sarco products and services? Viewed in isolation, this velocity may seem low in comparison with maximum permitted velocities. Calculates approximate return pipe size. automatically considered no need to look up information. These schedule numbers bear a relation to the pressure rating of the piping. Superheated steam can be considered as a dry gas and therefore carries no moisture. Many textbooks simply do not indicate which friction factors are defined, and a judgement must sometimes be based on the magnitudes quoted. Tyler example.xls Calculates energy loss on an hourly and annual basis. A 100 mm Schedule 40 pipe has an outside diameter of 114.30 mm, a wall thickness of 6.02 mm, giving a bore of 102.26 mm. You can change your cookie settings at any time but if you do, you may lose some functionality on our website. Related Topics . Having sized the pipe using the pressure drop method, the velocity can be checked if required. Allows easy calculation of flash steam loss and associated energy cost through a failed steam trap. Calculates energy loss on an hourly basis. Box 408, Three Rivers, MI 49093 – USA Phone: (269) 273-1415 Fax: (269) 278-6555 www.armstrong-intl.com Pipe Sizing Steam Supply and Condensate Return Lines Sizing Charts Chart CG-25, page CG-51, is the basic chart for determin-ing the flow rate and velocity of steam in Schedule 40 pipe Calculates approximate return pipe size The pipe size based on velocity (use Figure 10.2.10). Equation 10.2.10 requires the specific volume of steam to be known, which means it is necessary to look up this value from a steam table. For high temperature superheated steam mains, additional alloying elements, such as chromium and molybdenum, are included to improve tensile strength and creep resistance at high temperatures.
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