paternity leave europe

It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. It also helps to promote a more gender equal sharing of childcare at home and the mother’s return to the labour market. They are entitled to return to their jobs or to equivalent posts on terms and conditions which are no less favourable to them. At least 2 out of the 4 months are non-transferable from a parent to another. EU countries have different regulations for maternity leave. Arrangements for parental leave vary widely across Europe, and although the majority of EU Member States provide a statutory right to parental leave, some do not. The research described in this report was commissioned by the European Commission's Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion and conducted by RAND Europe. How Is COVID-19 Changing Online Shopping Habits? at what point during a child’s lifetime), its distribution (e.g. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Flexibility in the timing of uptake has a positive effect on uptake, Availability and access to childcare are positively related to uptake, The tax system can produce disincentives to take leave. There is no minimum compensation during parental leave at EU level. Subscribe to the weekly Policy Currents newsletter to receive updates on the issues that matter most. In most cases, it begins with the birth of the child (in the case of the father) or following maternity leave (in the case of the mother). The uptake of paternal leave by working fathers in Sweden has doubled after cash bonuses were provided for parents if parental leave is equally divided between parents and part of parental leave was reserved specifically for fathers. We find that although low or absent compensation levels during the leave are a key factor why fathers will or cannot take their leave entitlement, an increase in uptake will most likely result from an interlocking set of family policies that help dual earner families to combine work and family life in a sustainable manner. Right to parental leave (until 1 August 2022) Directive 2010/18 establishes a minimum of 4 months of parental leave. Most of these countries also offer 100 per cent income compensation for fathers on paternity leave. Assistant Policy Researcher, RAND; Ph.D. Student, Pardee RAND Graduate School. In some places parental leave allowances may be generous but take-up rates remain low. van Belle, Janna, Paternity and parental leave policies across the European Union. RAND Europe explored the reasons for the low take-up of parental leave by fathers across Europe. Although harder to quantify, workplace culture plays a role in determining uptake of parental leave by fathers. How long does parental leave last? In many cases, those on part-time contracts are on a lower income and less likely to take leave. European Commission, 2016. Primary Care Networks in a Time of Pandemic. Parents have the right to request taking the leave in a flexible way (part-time and in a piecemeal way). The Pardee RAND Graduate School ( is the largest public policy Ph.D. program in the nation and the only program based at an independent public policy research organization—the RAND Corporation. This Eastern European country gives new mothers a whopping 58.6 weeks — more than a year — of paid maternity leave, according to the OECD. In most European countries, working fathers can take parental leave, which is offered to both mothers and fathers, and paternity leave, which is just offered to fathers. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Parental leave is also longer, but largely uncompensated. What Influences Quality Improvement Processes in Health Care? The RAND Corporation is a research organization that develops solutions to public policy challenges to help make communities throughout the world safer and more secure, healthier and more prosperous. Parental leave eligibility in many countries is also conditional on the length of employment for working fathers (usually a year or more) and whether they are on full-time or part-time contracts. At least 1 out of the 4 months are non-transferable from a parent to another. Homeland Security Operational Analysis Center, How Military Medical Care Has Evolved Since World War II. In any event, you are entitled to parental leave … Japan offers 30 weeks of paid leave for fathers, by far the most of all the countries studied. We use cookies to tailor your experience, measure site performance and present relevant offers and advertisements. Women in the labour market / Work-Life Balance, This site is managed by the Directorate-General for Communication, Right to paternity leave (as of 2 August 2022), Right to parental leave (until 1 August 2022), Right to parental leave (as of 2 August 2022), Right to request flexible working arrangements (until 1 August 2022), Right to request flexible working arrangements (as of 2 August 2022), Legal protection for maternity leave, paternity leave and adoption leave, Find out how many days of maternity leave are given in your country, Find out how many days of paternity leave are given in your country, Directive 92/85 on the protection of pregnant workers, Directive 2006/54 on equal treatment between men and women in matters of employment and occupation, Directive 2010/41 on equal treatment between men and women in self-employment, Directive 1158/2019 on work-life balance for parents and carers, Aid, Development cooperation, Fundamental rights, Follow the European Commission on social media. Use Adobe Acrobat Reader version 10 or higher for the best experience. Other important factors that determine uptake, which vary widely across Europe are: Family-related leave policies across Europe, Differences between parental leave and paternal leave. EU countries have different regulations for paternity leave. Outcomes: why is a father's leave uptake so important? Our research shows that countries that provide the highest compensation rates have the highest proportion of employees taking parental leave. These cookies do not store any personal information. Those on lower incomes are less likely to take parental leave. This Directive also gives access to any services supplying temporary replacements existing at national level. Germany also experienced a rise after reserving a specific part of parental leave for fathers – a rise from 3.3 per cent in 2006 to 29.3 per cent in 2012. In this brief we describe the different policies available across Europe that address the uptake of paternity leave and parental leave, discuss the link between uptake of leave by fathers and the various outcomes associated with uptake, and give an overview of the existing barriers to uptake. A number of policies in EU countries have aimed to encourage the uptake of parental leave by fathers. © COPYRIGHT 2020 NEW EUROPE | ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Three key factors emerged: a lack of income compensation offered to working fathers; a lack of flexibility as to when parental leave is taken; and the culture of their workplace. Being Mindful About Changing Psychedelic Policy in California, Getting to Know Military Caregivers and Their Needs, Helping Coastal Communities Plan for Climate Change, Improving Psychological Wellbeing and Work Outcomes in the UK. The pay rate is 78.4% of the mother's previous full-time salary, which comes out to about 45.9 weeks off with full-time pay. How can Europe encourage fathers to take parental leave? Maternity leave is compensated at least at the national sick pay level. The take-up of parental and paternity leave by fathers is thought to be associated with the improved development of the child. It establishes the right to maternity allowances for at least 14 weeks. In 23 EU member states, on average, only 10 per cent of fathers took up parental leave in 2015. At least the 2 non-transferable months have to be adequately compensated at a level to be decided in each EU country (as of 2 August 2024 for the last 2 weeks). The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. 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This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. You can determine the length of your parental leave yourself. Paternity leave is compensated at least at the national sick pay level. The link between fathers taking parental leave and improvements in the development of children makes it an important area for European policymakers to consider. They are entitled to benefit from any improvement in working conditions to which they would have been entitled during their absence. Despite the positive effect of paternity- and parental leave uptake by fathers on a number of economic, social and demographic outcomes, the current uptake of leave by fathers across Europe is low. A lack of flexibility can often deter fathers from taking their parental leave. What policies have shown to work to increase uptake? Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. Research has shown that there is a large number of interlocking factors that affect uptake of leave by fathers, including the height of compensation, the availability of affordable childcare, the flexibility of leave arrangements, gender norms and cultural expectations. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. all at once or in separate periods) and whether it is taken full or part time. However, parental leave is notably different. Such commitments towards a work and family life are seen as important signals by fathers that it is acceptable to take parental leave. By clicking on 'Allow' or any content on this site, you agree that cookies can be placed. Companies that offer flexible working hours, options to increase or decrease working hours, or have work-life balance arrangements, such as crèches and babysitting, as part of their workplace culture are more likely to have male employees that take up parental leave.

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