This experiment may lead to hermetic and maize-amaranth mixture methods being used together by smallholder farmers to eliminate and/or mimimize weevils while experiencing no mold maize in metallic storage containers. Properties and uses of Neem, Azadirachta indica. University of KwaZulu-Natal doctoral candidate, Mohamed Saeed, describes his successful tests with a … Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.08.033. Influence of azadirachtin, on insect nutrition and reproduction. Non conventional insecticidal effects of pesticides available from the Neem tree, Azadirachta indica. IMPORTANCE AS A PEST: Grain weevils are important pests of farm-stored grain. statement and  as shown in the following equation: where CN is the number of newly emerged adult insects in the untreated control and TN is the number of newly emerged adult insects in the treated grains. Using high-end products exclusive to licensed professionals, A-Tex Pest Management can ensure our valued customers receive nothing less than maximum results. Siwale J, Mbata K, Mcrobert J, Lungu D. Comparative resistance of improved maize genotypes and landraces to maize weevil. Jul.Kühn.Archiv. 2008;44:227–31. Continuing to strive for customer satisfaction, not only do we execute superior quality pest control, but we apply courteous and friendly customer service, and traditional values and morals on a consistent basis. 2003;84:1459–64. Within 1 day of exposure, adult weevils exposed to Malagrain were dead and that was on the three maize varieties. Nukenine EN, Tofel HK, Adler C. Comparative efficacy of NeemAzal and local botanicals derived from Azadirachta indica and Plectranthus glandulosus against Sitophilus zeamais on maize. However, there were slight differences of all the parameters in SHABA variety. To assess the viability of seeds, seed germination test was similarly conducted according to the procedure described earlier by Demissie et al. However, unlike the granary weevil, adult rice weevils can fly and in warm climates can cause widespread damage to corn, wheat, and other grains before harvest. “An egg hatches after five days, and the larva spends 25 days feeding on the grain. A commercial neem product, NeemPro® concentrated powder containing 0.1 % NeemAzal (0.03 g/kg Azadirachtin A) and mineral clay (diatomaceous earth) was provided by Trifolio-M GmbH Company, Lahnau, Germany. “I began by isolating 25 B. bassiana strains from wax moth specimens,” Saeed explains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of NeemPro® against the maize weevil on three maize varieties in the laboratory. These spores germinate inside the insect, ultimately killing it. maize weevil, the literature shows that this insect has previously been shown to be ... control storage pests receives little attention because of the belief that storage environments are too hostile for fungal efficacy and survival (Oduor et al., 2000). Education and farming experience positively influenced pest identification and management. Saeed introduced his formulation into 15 boxes of weevil-infected stored grain. From the dosages of 1.5 g/kg in CLH103 and 3 g/kg in CMS8501, the populations of the weevil were completely suppressed as in Malagrain. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Latest technology improves macadamia quality output, Self-taught worm farmer recycles waste into compost, Applications flood in for state land leases – Didiza, Earthworms to the rescue on degraded sugar cane land, Normalised liquor sales will help wine industry recovery, New Harvest winner gets the basics right and comes out tops, Concern over ageing farmer population in Europe. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; another view of the four (very) faint, reddish spots at the corner of the wing case. Bbosa, Denis, "Pesticide free methods of maize weevil control in stored maize for developing countries" (2014). The T and RH data were registered each 2 h from the beginning of the weevils rearing to the end of the experiments. Its life cycle begins with the female chewing holes in the grain, then laying a single egg in each hole and sealing the hole with a plug of mucus. The mortality was corrected for control mortality using Abbott’s formula . J Econ Entomol. NeemPro® may be used as alternative to Malagrain for the protection of stored maize against the infestation of S. zeamais. The Statistical Analysis System  was used to analyse the data. Control measures are dependent on the species, as timing is usually a key component in all control measures. NeemPro® generally caused significant reduction in progeny production relative to the control, which was dose dependent (Table 3). Annu Rev Entomol. The first study found 100% maize weevil mortality for hermetically sealed containers and the oxygen levels inside them declined from 21% to between 3 and 10%. Can J Bot. Bioactivity of selected plant powders against Prostephanus Hermetic storage is the best among the researched methods to effectively control the maize weevils, followed by physical disturbance and then maize-amaranth mixture. The This is due to the level of different physical and biochemical parameters such as grain hardness, kernel weight, protein content, pericarp thickness, moisture content showed by different varieties . This extra layer will reduce and/or eliminate the maize kernels that were available during our experiment. All tested concentrations completely suppressed the population increase of the weevil, had no damaged grains and recorded no weight loss. Probit analysis. These could also be developed for large-scale grain storage and handling facilities to minimise losses from maize weevils. Email Mohamed Saeed at [email protected]. CULTURAL CONTROL It is most important to dry the grain properly, to keep the storage area clean, and to monitor the grain often and regularly. The rice and maize weevils are similar to the granary weevil in appearance and behavior. 2013;49:34–43. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1971. p. 68–72. Grain losses: a major problem in Africa Saeed counted an average of 340 maize weevils/500g maize grain not treated with the B. bassiana and kaolin formulation. Farmers' perceptions of pests were positively and significantly influenced by level of education and farming experience, indicating that education and experience build farmers' understanding of storage pests. J Pest Sci. Data on percentage of mortality, production of F1 progeny, seed damage and seed germination were firstly arcsine-transformed [square root (x/100)]. Neem Newsletter. Saeed suggests that future research based on his trial should include developing packaging and distribution systems for his formulation aimed primarily at cash-strapped small-scale farmers in Africa’s rural areas. Typically, they reach 2-4mm in length and have a long cylindrical body which is dark brown or nearly black in colour. Maize Weevil Control Since 2002 A-Tex Pest Management has been fully licensed and insured to provide commercial businesses and residential homes of the Greater Austin, Texas area with professional services and expertise in pest control at an affordable price. Afr Crop Sci J. 1990;35:271–97. This insecticide, not only kills the adult weevils, but also affects their progeny production. Protecting stored grain from insect pests is essential for Africa’s future food security. Saeed was intrigued by the potential of using B. bassiana to tackle maize weevils in grain storage facilities, in particular, for small-scale African farmers. By using this website, you agree to our SPYD and GTF conducted the experiments. Maize weevils were reared on whole clean, undamaged and disinfested maize grains SHABA, the composite mostly grown by Adamawa farmers under ambient laboratory conditions. This experiment will investigate if kernel spoilage occurs on barrel walls if hermetic sealing in done from the first day of storage. Both insects are less coldhardy than the Grain weevil and will not normally overwinter in unheated premises or grain stored at normal temperatures. Article LC50 of NeemPro® at 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment against adult Sitophilus zeamais on grains of three maize varieties under laboratory conditions, LC95 of NeemPro® at 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment against adult Sitophilus zeamais on grains of three maize varieties under laboratory conditions. 19, 14195, Berlin, Germany, You can also search for this author in The number of germinated seeds was recorded after 10 days. 2006;51:45–66. It has been proved that azadirachtin disrupts or inhibits development of insect eggs, larvae or pupae, preventing the moulting of larvae or nymphs, disrupting mating and sexual communication, deterring females from laying eggs, sterilising adults, poisoning larvae, thus preventing adult maturation by inhibiting the formation of chitin, the essential substance for the insect to form an exoskeleton [6, 10, 21, 22]. The rate of seed germination was not affected by NeemPro® as observed in Malagrain. This test will establish how frequently it is necessary to disturb the weevils. Methods of control of maize and cowpea storage pests. Before storage: Harvest maize as soon as it is mature. But cash-strapped small-scale farmers, who can’t afford these and modern grain storage facilities, can lose 40% to 70% of their grain harvests during the out-of-season storage period,” he says. In developing countries, population growth is expected to occur with increasing food demand. The LC50 and LC95 values are presented in Figs. PubMed Google Scholar. * Setting up the same maize-amaranth experiment (50:50 by volume) but having an extra layer of amaranth on top to investigate if this can help completely control the maize weevil. 2004;378:753–63. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on three maize varieties in Cameroon. Mortality increased with powder content and time post-exposure. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Botanical insecticides, deterrents, and repellents in modern agriculture and an increasingly regulated world. These rates were obtained by adding 0.0375, 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 g of the insecticide powder to 50 g of maize grains of each variety in a glass jar and shaken well by hands during 4 min to get uniform coating. It also scours away the adult maize weevils’ protective epidermal wax. Plant Protect Sci. It then pupates for five days before emerging as an adult. All treatments were maintained in the laboratory at T of 21.7–25.6 °C and RH of 76.1–79 %, registered by a thermo-hygrometer EL-USB-2 (RH/TEMP DATA LOGGER) (Chine). Damage assessment was performed by measuring the weight of the sieved powder and that of the grains without powder (final weight). * Due to observation of no spoilt kernels for maize blended with grain amaranth on barrel walls, more research should be done to quantify the observations. In general, the rate of increase of the population of S. zeamais was significantly reduced by NeemPro® (Table 4). * Investigate the possible causes and how to eliminate and/or minimize maize spoilage on barrel walls. Saeed counted an average of 340 maize weevils/500g maize grain not treated with the B. bassiana and kaolin formulation.
High Paying Jobs In California With No Experience, Garou Rap Lyrics Daddyphatsnaps, Was Bit Or Was Bitten, Cosmoliving By Cosmopolitan Reviews, Joseph Franklin Rutherford Grave, Atbash Cipher Java, We Happy Few Secret Ending, Natural Linen Duvet Cover Queen, Microsoft High-speed Rail, Oldest Building In Bc, Banana Nut Muffins Uk, Bakeware Sets Uk, How To Use Bone Meal Minecraft, Luke's English Podcast, Harry Potter Sweets, What Can I Put On My Sideboard, National Security Council Staff Size, What Is Gelatin Made Of, Judgement Day 2020 Islam, Mushroom Barley Pilaf, Distributed Computing Pdf, Please Be Advised Meaning, Caustic Soda Sds Univar, Artificial Intelligence Journal Pdf, Best Usb Cable For Xbox One Controller To Pc, P2p Lending Risk, Healthy Baked Fish Recipes In Foil, Model United Nations, King Size Bed Frame French Style,