The Department of Health and Human Services can improve outcomes through subsidized mental health treatment, increased access to and provision of community health worker programs, incentivization and regulation of a more inclusive doula industry, subsidized doula costs, free doula services for the most financially insecure women, and improved organizational operations. As of 2016, there were 16.9 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births—a drastic increase from 7.2 deaths in 1987. “Health of Black or African American non-Hispanic Population. HIV: HIV is linked to maternal mortality. For every 100,000 births, 3 mothers die. “Improving Hospital Quality to Reduce Disparities in Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality.”. 9. World Bank; 2016. Through doing so, we are able to recommend solutions that will address the crisis. For black women like Stacy-Ann, the risk is even higher: They’re three times as likely as white women to die from a pregnancy-related cause. There is some progress: The American College of oObstetricians and Gynecologists recently published guidelines recommending that all women be assessed for cardiovascular disease when pregnant. Hemorrhages are problematic because many clinics do not have the resources and the blood needed for transfusions, so mothers die from blood loss. Culturally relevant doulas have similar racial and cultural backgrounds as the mothers they serve, which supports the development of trusting and effective mother–doula relationships. Meanwhile, nearly one in 10 black women are uninsured in the United States . In the past, pregnancy and childbirth were more dangerous. Maternal mortality rates are 7.7 times higher among women over 40 as opposed to those under 25. From 1990 to 2008, nine percent of maternal deaths in Sub-Saharan Africa were linked to the HIV infection, and about five percent of maternal deaths worldwide are connected to HIV. Consequently, women in the United States are most prone to complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Instead of being by her infant’s side in the NICU, the new mom began motherhood in the cardiac unit. 2016;387(10017):462–474. Lack of Access to Healthcare: Rural women are most susceptible to Maternal Mortality. A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot in the lungs. For example, in Nigeria, contraceptive use is seen as ‘denying God’s gift,’ and is therefore discouraged. 2017 May 3. Kimberlé Crenshaw notes that the mutually exclusive application of race and gender leads to the demise of black women within the contexts of law, feminist theory, and antiracist politics.7 In order for equitable outcomes to be achieved, she argues that “the single-axis [framework] that distorts [the experience of black women]” and perpetuates discrimination needs to be replaced with a multidimensional analysis . There is an emphasis on healing, empowerment, and holistic care. Nonetheless, these differences in organizational outcomes continue to exist when hospitals serve hypersegregated communities.
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